Arthrosis of the hip joint is a disease of the musculoskeletal system with a progressive course and a chronic nature. Dystrophic changes begin in the cartilaginous tissue, which changes its structure, becomes loose, fibrous, becomes thinner and loses its amortization function. As a result, the bone joints begin to rub against each other, motor activity is lost, and pain occurs. In the absence of treatment, a person becomes disabled.
Clinical picture and causes of arthrosis
Arthrosis of the hip joint occupies a leading position among diseases of the musculoskeletal system and affects mainly the adult population after 35 years. In the medical classifier, he was assigned the M16 code according to MBK 10.
The hip joint is the largest in the human body and takes on the greatest load. It connects the bones to the pelvis and has a spherical appearance. The round head of the femur is inserted into the acetabular notch. Its surface is covered with cartilaginous tissue, which allows bones to slide and performs shock-absorbing functions, protecting bones from friction, destruction and providing a range of motion.
The mechanism of arthrosis is simple:
- The amount of synovial fluid decreases, due to which the joint is washed worse by it, and the supply of nutrients decreases.
- The structure of the joint becomes loose. Due to friction, the cartilage becomes thinner, it ceases to mitigate the pressure on the bones.
- Growths (osteophytes) are formed along the edges of the bone sites.
- The joint gap is gradually reduced.
- The person experiences severe pain, problems with movement, the limb is shortened, provoking lameness.
Osteoarthritis of the hip can develop for several reasons, but more often it is provoked by a combination of unfavorable circumstances. The disease is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case, doctors do not find a reason for the development of the disease, in the second, arthrosis occurs due to certain pathologies.
- power loads, especially in the post-traumatic period, when the joint has not yet recovered;
- congenital anomaly of the femoral head (dysplasia);
- arthritis (joint inflammation);
- prolonged stress;
- hormonal changes and diseases of the endocrine system;
- infectious diseases.
Arthrosis can be unilateral, with damage to the right or left hip joint. More often there is a two-sided option, when the pathological process affects both sides.
Symptoms and degrees of arthrosis
The clinic of arthrosis directly depends on the stage of the disease. At first, a person begins to feel a slight discomfort in the groin and morning stiffness of the leg, while swelling and swelling of soft tissues does not occur. As the pathology develops, an acute period begins, which is characterized by intense pain.
On a note. When the first symptoms are found, you must consult a doctor and undergo an examination. Early disease responds well to treatment.
The main complaint of all patients is pain and limited mobility. Their severity depends on dystrophic changes in cartilage.
There are 3 degrees of the disease:
- At 1 degree, only discomfort arises after prolonged physical exertion (climbing uphill, running, cycling), which goes away on its own after rest. Muscles are in good shape, movements are not limited. A narrowing of the joint space can be seen on the x-ray.
- At 2 degrees, pain begins, which is given to the groin area, spread to the buttock and the front of the thigh. There are "starting" pains when trying to get up or start walking, which disappear after 2-3 minutes. After prolonged exertion, the soreness increases and goes away at rest. A symptom of arthrosis is a characteristic crunch in the joint, movements are limited (abduction of the hip), muscle strength decreases, with painful sensations, a spasm of smooth muscles occurs. On the X-ray, small osteophytes are visible, which are located along the edges of the bony areas of the joints. The femoral neck is thickened and widened, the joint space is significantly narrowed.
- At 3 degrees of the disease, the pain is permanent and does not subside even at rest. When walking, patients use improvised objects (cane, crutch). There is an atrophy of the muscle tissue of the thigh and lower leg, the limb is shortened - in order to reach the ground, the patient is forced to stand on the tips of the fingers. The X-ray image shows massive osteophytes, the femoral head is flattened, the joint space is practically invisible.
Some doctors also distinguish the 4th degree of the disease. Ossification of the joint and complete disability occurs on it, a person cannot move without the help of crutches. The degree of arthrosis is established on the basis of X-ray images, which help to clarify the etiology of the pathological process.
The following types of arthrosis are distinguished:
- dysplastic - the slope of the acetabulum is determined;
- post-traumatic - depends on the nature of the injury and the shape of the joint after the fusion of the bones.
The causes of pathology in children are trauma, subluxation and dysplasia. Metabolic disorders can provoke the destruction of cartilage tissue.
The main symptom of the disease in children is pain syndrome after long games. As arthrosis develops, they become more intense and stronger. The child refuses to run, his appetite decreases, excessive tearfulness appears. The second symptom is limited movement in the affected joint, numbness of the leg. Parents need to pay attention to the characteristic crunch. If the first symptoms are found, an urgent need to consult a doctor.
On a note. A child's body regenerates faster than an adult's. Timely treatment will save the child from disability.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, the main goal is to improve the blood supply to the joint. For this, the doctor prescribes various physiotherapy procedures, exercise therapy, visits to sanatoriums, medications.
Prevention consists in proper nutrition. Particularly important are vitamins of group B, C, D. It is necessary to walk a lot in the fresh air, actively move and avoid traumatic situations.
Difference between arthrosis and other joint diseases
Many patients, having heard the diagnosis "arthrosis", confuse it with other diseases of the joints. Often doctors in the medical history make a note of "coxarthrosis". Consonant words confuse the patient.
Arthrosis is the general name for pathological processes that cause the destruction of cartilage tissue. It usually goes away with joint deformity without infectious and inflammatory processes. May affect the knee, elbow, shoulder and other joints. Coxarthrosis is an arthrosis of the hip joint, as indicated by the prefix "cox", which highlights a specific area.
What is the difference between sacroiliitis and arthrosis? In the first case, inflammation of the sacroiliac joint occurs, which is characterized by pain in the sacrum when sitting. There is swelling in the vertebrae, pain in the buttocks. With arthrosis, thinning of the cartilage occurs, as a result of which friction of the bones begins - this causes pain.
Arthritis is an inflammatory process in the joint tissue. The difference with arthrosis is that the latter is caused by mechanical movements that lead to abrasion of the cartilage. With arthritis, swelling and redness occurs in the articular region, the cause is infectious diseases or inflammatory processes inside the body. The reactive stage of the disease almost always causes arthrosis. Pain sensations are similar, but with coxarthrosis they subside at night, and with arthritis they become stronger.
The clinical picture is similar. To correctly diagnose and exclude arthritis and sacroiliitis, doctors conduct a blood sampling and analysis. An increased content of leukocytes and ESR indicates an inflammatory process in the body.
With arthrosis, long-term and complex treatment is necessary, which is based on medications, physiotherapy, exercise therapy and massage, while diet is given an important role. Proper nutrition is necessary both at the stage of exacerbation and in remission. It should be balanced and contain all the essential vitamins. In addition, the diet promotes weight loss, which reduces the stress on the joints.
- vegetables and fruits;
- lean meats;
- crumbly porridge on the water;
- dairy products;
- bran bread;
- a fish;
The menu should include gelatin. On its basis, you can make various desserts from berries and fruits, as well as jellied meat. Eat cottage cheese, yogurt, milk daily. It is better to replace chicken eggs with quail eggs. Boil, simmer or steam food. Eliminate fried and fatty foods. Give preference to vegetable oils. Drink at least 1. 5 clean water a day. The temperature of the food should not be too high or too low.
Avoid quick snacks fast foods with sweet soda water. Exclude semi-finished products, sausages, preservation. Prefer natural products without added preservatives.
What is prohibited:
- smoked products;
- white bread and baked goods;
- hot spices;
- fatty meats;
- canned food;
- dairy products with high fat content;
- carbonated drinks;
Important. Food intake should be frequent, at least 5-6 times a day, 200 grams. Snacks are best done with your favorite fruits, you can drink a glass of kefir at night. The diet should not exceed 2000 kcal for women and 3000 kcal for men.
Preventive measures consist in the timely elimination of the root causes of the disease and general strengthening measures.
To prevent the development of the disease, you must adhere to the following rules:
- To live an active lifestyle. Swimming, exercise without stress on the joint is recommended. Preventive methods include a bath and a sauna, which improve blood flow and remove toxins.
- Follow a diet. This is necessary to provide the body with the necessary vitamins and accelerate metabolic processes.
- Avoid hypothermia. Low temperatures cause muscle cramps, which impair the blood supply to the joint.
- To minimize the possibility of trauma, especially with developing coxarthrosis.
Subject to the rules, patient reviews were positive. They noted a decrease in pain, restoration of joint mobility, and an improvement in well-being.
Coxarthrosis or arthrosis of the hip is a disease with a chronic course, phases of exacerbation and remission. Timely treatment allows you to stop the dystrophic process in the cartilaginous tissue and maintain the mobility of the legs. In the absence of therapy, a person becomes disabled, and in this case, only surgery and joint replacement can restore the musculoskeletal system.