Pain in the lumbar region is a clinical symptom of pathological changes in various tissues. At a young age, muscle spasms and overstrain appear in this way, at a more mature age - osteochondrosis and its complications. In older people, any pain can be regarded as a sign of a compression fracture of the vertebral body against the background of developing osteoporosis.
The causes and methods of treating low back pain discussed in the article are fact-finding information. It only gives a general idea of what might be going on in your body. But it does not replace the advice of a specialist. If you have any discomfort in the lumbar and sacral region, seek medical attention immediately. It is best to make an appointment with a vertebrologist or neurologist. These doctors have the necessary level of professional competence in the treatment of diseases of the spinal column.
For these purposes, we recommend that you choose a manual therapy clinic at your place of residence. Usually doctors work there who have vast practical experience in working with patients suffering from pathologies of the spine and other parts of the musculoskeletal system.
Before starting to treat low back pain at home, it is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis. The fact is that the pain syndrome can be provoked by a variety of pathological reactions. The most common types of violations are:
- the consequences of a traumatic effect on bone tissues - fractures and cracks of the vertebral bodies and their processes;
- stretching and microscopic ruptures of fibers in ligaments, tendons and paravertebral muscles;
- the formation of hematomas after bruising of soft tissues - they put pressure on the nerve fiber;
- inflammation - may be due to prolapse of the intervertebral hernia, aseptic reaction to trauma, the introduction of an infectious agent (for example, with tuberculosis of the spine);
- degenerative dystrophic process of destruction of intervertebral discs;
- ruptures of fibrous rings of discs;
- tissue ischemia against the background of disturbances in the processes of blood supply and innervation;
- compression (for example, due to the instability of the position of the vertebral bodies or their displacement).
The spinal column is an anatomically complex structure. It consists of the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, and separating endplates. Around the spine are longitudinal and transverse ligaments, paravertebral muscles. Inside the spinal canal, formed by the vertebral bodies and arcuate processes, is the spinal cord. This is the central structure of the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for the functioning of the entire human body. Innervation is carried out due to the radicular nerves extending from the spinal cord through the lateral openings in the vertebral bodies.
The intervertebral disc holds the vertebral bodies at a certain distance, which it separates. And thanks to this, there is no compression effect on the radicular nerves and their branches. They do not become inflamed and do not experience ischemia due to impaired blood supply. If in the area of intervertebral cartilaginous discs there is a decrease in the activity of the muscle fiber, then the quality of diffuse nutrition is sharply reduced. And the cartilaginous intervertebral discs do not have their own blood vessels. This provokes a decrease in their height, compression of the nerve fiber and other soft tissues near the spine. Naturally, this process is accompanied by a strong pain syndrome in the lumbar region.
Next, let's talk about the potential causes of pain - diseases, and risk factors for their development.
The main reasons for lower back pain
So, let's start with the fact that in the lumbar region there are many large muscles. Some of them are responsible for bipedal locomotion, support the body in an upright position, and allow various body movements (tilts, twists, turns, etc. ).
These muscles are made up of myocytes. To which cell does the nerve ending and its own blood vessel - the capillary - fit. With any violation of innervation or blood supply, the performance of the muscle is sharply reduced. For example, if a person subjected his lower back to excessive physical exertion, then the muscle fiber spasmed. In this state, it is not able to conduct nerve impulses and has a compressive effect on capillary blood vessels. There are foci of ischemic reaction and trigger points (places where mismatched contraction and relaxation of myocytes occurs). These conditions may go away on their own. But in most cases, fibromyalgic pain syndrome can persist for several years and require the help of an experienced chiropractor.
Other potential causes of low back pain include:
- degenerative dystrophic destruction of the cartilaginous fiber of the intervertebral discs (osteochondrosis);
- complications of osteochondrosis in the form of protrusion and extrusion of the intervertebral discs, prolapse of a hernia and its sequestration;
- instability of the position of the discs and vertebral bodies relative to each other in the form of weakness or deformity of the ligamentous and tendon apparatus;
- displacement of the vertebral bodies by the type of antelisthesis, retrolisthesis or lateroslisthesis;
- curvature of the spinal column, violation of posture, including thoracic scoliosis, complicated by twisting and skew of the pelvic bones;
- stenosis of the spinal canal, including due to prolapse of the dorsal intervertebral hernia or displacement of the vertebral body;
- compression fracture of the vertebral body or fissure of its process;
- stretching and rupture of the longitudinal or transverse ligament;
- deforming spondylarthrosis, in which the amplitude of mobility in the projection of the intervertebral joint may decrease;
- destruction of the iliac-sacral joints;
- destruction of the joint between the coccyx and the sacrum;
- tumor and infectious pathologies of the tissues of the spinal cord and spinal column;
- inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity and in the pelvic organs;
- piriformis and cauda equina syndrome.
These are just some of the possible causes of pain in the lumbar region. Remember that only an experienced doctor can make an accurate diagnosis based on an examination and additional clinical examinations. Therefore, you should not engage in self-diagnosis and treatment. This can lead to sad consequences for your body.
Be sure to contact an experienced doctor, he will establish the reasons why the lower back hurts and prescribe a treatment that will allow you to restore damaged tissues without harm to your health.
What are the symptoms to look out for?
Each disease that causes low back pain provokes the appearance of additional symptoms. It is on them that you should pay attention in order not to waste time and contact the specialist who deals with the treatment of such diseases.
So, let's start with the most common. This is osteochondrosis and its consequences. With such a disease, in addition to pain, there is stiffness of movements, muscle strain in the lumbar region. Difficulty sitting or standing for a long time. I want to take a forced position. With such manifestations, it is worth making an appointment with a vertebrologist.
If the pain spreads along the lower extremities, radiates to the groin area, the anterior abdominal wall, there is an intestinal disorder, there are areas of skin numbness, then it is advisable to visit a neurologist. This means that a pinched nerve fiber has occurred. Only a neurologist will be able to determine at what level the nerve was damaged and how this compression can be quickly and safely eliminated.
Treatment in the event that the back and lower back hurts due to a violation of the integrity of the tissues is carried out by a traumatologist. After restoring the integrity of tissues, it is necessary to undergo a rehabilitation course with a manual therapist. Therefore, if there was a traumatic effect and after that a pain syndrome appeared, then first of all contact the emergency room.
If you experience frequent urination, fever, muscle aches, headaches, you should contact your local therapist to rule out the pathology of the urinary system. If possible, make an appointment with a nephrologist.
In women, lower back pain may be associated with damage to the genital organs, so a gynecologist's consultation is necessary. Men are advised to visit an andrologist or urologist. It is also always worth excluding damage to the tissues of the rectum and lower sections of the large intestine.
If you experience back pain in the lumbar region, an X-ray image of the lumbosacral region is prescribed. On it, the doctor can see indirect signs of osteochondrosis, deforming spondylarthrosis, disc protrusion, etc. An MRI examination is required to confirm or refute the diagnosis. According to his conclusion, the doctor can establish the diagnosis of intervertebral hernia, stenosis of the spinal canal, etc. To exclude the pathology of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis, ultrasound and colonoscopy are performed.
Back pain treatment in the lumbar region
It is necessary to begin the treatment of back pain in the lumbar region by eliminating the negative influence factor. If this is a decrease in the height of the intervertebral disc, then it is necessary to stop the compression of the nerve fiber and the soft tissues surrounding the spinal column. The easiest way to achieve this effect is during the procedure of manual traction of the spinal column. Already after the 2nd session, patients feel a significant relief of their condition. But this does not mean a complete recovery.
To fully restore the damaged cartilage tissue of the intervertebral discs, a full course of treatment should be carried out. It may include the following types of therapeutic effects:
- massage of the muscular frame of the back and lower back - allows you to normalize the tone of the muscle fiber, restore its performance, increase capillary blood supply and trophism;
- osteopathy in the treatment of pain in the lumbar region allows you to eliminate infiltrative swelling of soft tissues by enhancing the processes of microcirculation of blood and lymphatic fluid;
- reflexology starts regeneration processes by using the hidden reserves of the human body;
- therapeutic exercises and kinesitherapy in the treatment of back pain in the lumbar region takes pride of place, allows you to fully restore the performance of all muscles;
- physiotherapy is used to enhance metabolism at the cellular level.
We recommend treating low back pain in manual therapy clinics. Doctors there have accumulated vast practical experience in treating such patients. If you have lower back pain, in no case do not treat yourself. This is dangerous for your health.